^ Project 2 The Financial Aspects of Getting Higher Education |
1.5 Read the following selections. The issue discussed is the financial aspect of getting higher education. Consider each of the presented facts and discuss the position of the Ukrainian students in view of the recent changes in the Ukrainian system of higher education.
a) The cost of attending colleges and universities has steadily increased since the 1980s. At that time, some states began to reduce the percentage of their budget devoted to higher education because they had to meet rising costs for Medicare, transportation, prisons, and other public services. Most public institutions have raised tuition rates to compensate for this loss of funds. Meanwhile, both public and private institutions have had to meet increased expenditures for faculty and staff salaries, construction, and general operations. Since private institutions in the United States do not receive public funds, they generally charge students’ higher tuition and fees than do public institutions. In Canada, public and private institutions usually charge comparable tuition and fees because the provincial and federal governments subsidize student costs for both types of institutions.
b) In the United States, the average tuition with room and board at a four-year public college for in-state residents during the 1978-1979 academic year was $1,994. By the 1996-1997 school year, the figure had reached $7,331. At private four-year schools, tuition, room, and board nationwide increased from an average of $4,514 to an average of $18,476. In Canada, the cost of higher education varies significantly from one province to another. In the 1996-1997 academic year tuition fees (without room and board) at four-year institutions ranged from $1,170 in Quebec to more than $2,800 in Nova Scotia. Tuition fees at private four-year colleges and universities in Canada range from about $2,800 to $5,700.
c) More than 10 percent of full-time college students work full-time to pay for their college education. Most others work part-time to help offset the costs of attending college. However, higher tuition and a decline in the purchasing power of minimum wage jobs have made it increasingly difficult for students to pay for college by working part-time. To provide some assistance in financing higher education costs, a number of states have established programs that allow families to prepay college tuition years in advance by purchasing special contracts or tax-exempt bonds.
d) Students may apply for and receive financial aid to help pay tuition and other costs of attending college. The chief sources of financial aid are federal programs, state grant programs, private grants, and institutional sources at the college or university. Aid may be either a grant based on financial need, a merit-based financial award given to the student, or a loan that the student must repay with interest in the future.
e) In the past, most students received financial aid in the form of a grant. However, the increases in tuition rates since the 1990s have coincided with a decrease in the funds available for public or private grants. More of the financial aid that most students now receive comes in the form of a loan rather than a grant or an award. For example, in the late 1980s the average grant was 46 percent of a typical student’s total aid package, while the average federal loan was 52 percent. By 1998 the grant size had fallen to 40 percent of the typical total, while loan size had increased to 58 percent. In 1997 borrowers who attended public four-year colleges had accumulated an average of $13,000 in debts. Those who went to private colleges averaged $17,500 in debts. Borrowers in graduate school had an average debt of $24,500, and those who went to professional school averaged $48,500.
f) Education is an enormous investment that requires contributions from many sources. American higher education is especially expensive, with its heavy investment in laboratory space and research equipment. It receives funding from private individuals, foundations, and corporations. Many private universities have large endowments, or funds, that sustain the institutions beyond what students pay in tuition and fees. Many, such as Harvard University in Massachusetts and Stanford University in California, raise large sums of money through fund drives. Even many state-funded universities seek funds from private sources to augment their budgets. Most major state universities, such as those in Michigan and California, now rely on a mixture of state and private resources.
1.6 When people begin to attend college, there come a number of repercussions. Do you agree to the following statements? Give your reasons and provide your answer with examples.
1.7 The information below deals with the USA system of higher education.
Going to college delayed maturity and independence for many Ukrainians;
Getting higher education extends many of the stresses of adolescence into a person’s 20s and postponing the rites of adulthood, such as marriage and childbearing.
As modern society pays more attention to education, it also devotes a greater proportion of its resources to it.
Parents are expected to support their children longer and to forgo their children's contribution to the household.
a) What are the differences in the Ukrainian and American experience in this field? Do some research to get necessary facts and data.
Education became increasingly important during the 20th century, as America’s sophisticated industrial society demanded a more literate and skilled workforce. In addition, school degrees provided a sought-after means to obtain better-paying and higher-status jobs. Schools were the one American institution that could provide the literate skills and work habits necessary for Americans of all backgrounds to compete in industries. As a result, education expanded rapidly. In the first decades of the 20th century, mandatory education laws required children to complete grade school. By the end of the 20th century, many states required children to attend school until they were at least 16. In 1960, 45 percent of high school graduates enrolled in college; by 1996 that enrollment rate had risen to 65 percent. By the late 20th century, an advanced education was necessary for success in the globally competitive and technologically advanced modern economy. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, workers with a bachelor’s degree in 1997 earned an average of $40,000 annually, while those with a high school degree earned about $23,000. Those who did not complete high school earned about $16,000.
In the United States, higher education is widely available and obtainable through thousands of private, religious, and state-run institutions, which offer advanced professional, scientific, and other training programs that enable students to become proficient in diverse subjects. Colleges vary in cost and level of prestige. Many of the oldest and most famous colleges on the East Coast are expensive and set extremely high admissions standards. Large state universities are less difficult to enter, and their fees are substantially lower. Other types of institutions include state universities that provide engineering, teaching, and agriculture degrees; private universities and small privately endowed colleges; religious colleges and universities; and community and junior colleges that offer part-time and two-year degree programs. This complex and diverse range of schools has made American higher education the envy of other countries and one of the nation’s greatest assets in creating and maintaining a technologically advanced society.
b) Consider the questions under discussion and enact the panel.
How should higher education be organized, directed and financed?
^ How much autonomy should there be for Universities?